the structure of ears


Ear canal
  • Tube leading from Pinna to Tympanic membrane
  • Channels sound waves towards the tympanic membrane.
  • Provides a waxy substance to protect and lube the ear.
Tympanic membrane
  • Situated between the external ear and the middle ear.
  • Vibrate with the same frequency as the sound wave that hits it.
  • Provides an air tight protection between the external and middle ear.
Ear ossicles
  • Consists of three main bones in the middle ear known as the malleus (hammer), the incus (Anuil), and stape (Stirrup).
  • Transfers the vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the middle of the ear to the oval window.
Oval window
  • Small, thin membrane situated between the middle and inner ear.
  • Receives the vibration from the tympanic membrane via the ossicles.
Round window
  • Situated just below the oval window.
  • Acts like a piston to transfer the vibration from the oval window to the fluid in the inner ear.
  • A long tube wound around itself that is filled with liquid (perilymph).
  • The fluid in the cochlea transfers the vibrations to the hairs in organ of corti
Organ of Corti
  • Situated inside the cochlea.
  • Contains millions of receptors hair cells that are attached to nerves.
  • Hairs are tuned to certain wave frequency. When the wave pass over the hair an electric signal is triggered.
Auditory nerve
· A bundle of nerve fibers bound together.
  • Sends the electrical signals to the brain to be interpreted.
Eustachian tube
  • A long marrow tube that opens in middle ear which leads to the pharynx.
  • To equalise the pressure between the outer and inner ear.